Definitions and symbols

Exchange rates:more than half the Group’s operations are located in countries which use a non-euro currency, primarily the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Canada and Switzerland. Due to the local nature of the business, in each country revenue is generally expressed in the same currency as costs and investments. The Group also has a currency risk management policy, financing most of its net assets in the principal non-euro currencies with debt in the same currency, or entering into currency hedges that achieve the same effect. However, this does not neutralize the impact of exchange rate fluctuations when translating individual financial statement items. In comparisons with prior-year figures, the phrase “at constant exchange rates” may also be used, to signify the increase or decrease that would have occurred had the comparative figures of consolidated companies with functional currencies other than the euro been calculated at the same exchange rates employed for the period under review.

Revenue: in the directors’ report this refers to operating revenue, excluding fuel sales. Costs as a percentage of revenue are calculated on this basis.

EBITDA: this is the sum of EBIT (earnings before interest and tax) and depreciation, amortization and impairment losses, and can be gleaned directly from the consolidated financial statements, as supplemented by the notes thereto. Because it is not defined in IFRS, it could differ from and therefore not be comparable with EBITDA reported by other companies.

Capital expenditure:this excludes investments in non-current financial assets and equity investments.

Comparable basis:this refers to revenue generated only by locations open throughout the comparison period as well as the period under review, without any significant change in products sold or services provided.



Unless otherwise specified, amounts in the directors’ report are expressed in millions of euros (€m), millions of US dollars ($m), or millions of British pounds (£m). In the notes to the financial statements, unless otherwise specified, amounts are expressed in thousands (€k, $k and £k).

Where figures have been rounded to the nearest million, changes and ratios are calculated using figures extended to thousands for the sake of greater accuracy.